Category Archives: environmental protection

Top 10 Ways to Put Human Waste to Use in an Environmentally-Friendly Way

Recycling of human waste, which refers to feces and urine, has many benefits. According to research, on average a human produces fifty liters of feces and five hundred liters of urine. Instead of disposing this in the landfills or treating it and releasing it in the environment, human waste can be exploited in several ways.

And as much as dealing with human waste may exposes one to diseases and unpleasant smell, efforts can be made to ensure the process is human-friendly. Besides, it cannot be as bad as some of the harmful chemical products produced by leading chemical producing companies. In other words, the process of handling the human waste can be made human-friendly and used for the betterment of the environment as outlined in this article.


1. Biogas

Methane gas which is produced by human waste can be tapped and used to produce biogas. Biogas could be used to generate electricity, cook food, and heat water for domestic or industrial use. This is through a process that involves collection of methane in an enclosed container free from oxygen. High temperatures are favorable in the decomposition of organic matter. Biogas, when burnt in the presence of oxygen, it reacts to produce energy.

Use of biogas as a renewable source is of great advantage in numerous ways as it does not pollute the environment and reduces deforestation aimed at producing energy. Biogas contributes to environmental protection by capturing methane that would have been released into the air. If methane would be released into the atmosphere, it would lead to damage if the ozone layer.

2. Fertilizer

Human waste can be utilized as a fertilizer to increase the production of food. The waste is however recommended to be treated at least once before its application on the farm. Treatment is applied to the collection of feces, urine and water from households that is digested by bacteria to reduce the number of pathogens and make the sludge less biologically active hence stinks less.

The use of sludge in agriculture threatens residents around the farm with odor and might pose health problems for those working on the farm. Urine can irrigate fields in the case where water is scarce. Where urine is involved in irrigation, there has to be keen consideration on hygiene. Even though urine poses a danger to human health, it contains nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus that are essential minerals to plants. Access to urine for irrigation is cheap bearing in mind its usefulness.

3. Fecal Transplant

Clostridium difficile is an infection of the gut characterized by inflammation, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Overabundance of bad bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract is the cause of this infection. A remedy to these bacteria is the use of feces from a healthy person and delivering it to the gut of the patient. Delivery of feces can be done in several ways such as using a tube through the patient’s anus and rectum or shooting of frozen fecal matter through one’s nose.

Fecal transplant is preferred because invasive surgery involves chopping, removing, or diverting of organs to get rid of bad bacteria. Moreover, fecal transplant is quick, inexpensive, and more effective than antibiotic administration. Of importance is that through this procedure there is reduced antibiotic resistance which is the ability of microbes to resist medication that previously treated them. However useful the procedure is, careful selection of the donor is important to avoid passing of bacterial and parasitic infections.

4. Hydrogen Fuel

Hydrogen fuel can be deduced from human waste through the same process as the one of passing current through water. It proves to be more efficient with less energy required in the process. Water is distilled from human waste solids then the waste is left in air-sealed tanks for microbial action to take place. This results in the formation of methane and carbon dioxide.

Methane formed in this process is cheaper as compared to relying on natural gas. Methane and carbon go through a tri-generation process that produces hydrogen fuel, heat, and electricity. With the abundance of human waste, consistent supply of hydrogen fuel can be achieved. Hydrogen fuel can be utilized in running of rockets and production of electricity by combining hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

5. Brick-making

Who knew that human waste could be used in the making of bricks? Incinerated sewage sludge ash is combined with vegetable oil in the making of bricks. These bricks are carbon-negative as oil used is derived from plants, which have sucked carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Also, in utilization of such bricks in construction, one protects the environment considering that traditional bricks are made using processes that emit carbon dioxide. Human waste that traditionally would be sent to a landfill is utilized to build structures of many kinds without a scent and it is pocket-friendly.

The bricks are lighter and stronger which means wide usage of such bricks would revolutionize the construction industry not mentioning improvements could be made to them to make them better over time. Making of these bricks could serve as a source of revenue for many.

6. Fuel

In developing countries, the majority of the households cook using biomass. Charcoal being the major source of energy, leads to the degradation of forests. A great solution is the use of human poop heated in the sun as fuel. This alternative fuel burns for two times longer compared to charcoal and releases lesser carbon monoxide. Packaged as briquettes, one ton of these briquettes saves around 88 trees and proves to be a cheaper source of energy.

The process of making this fuel begins with treatment of fecal waste by heating it in a waiting container so as to remove any harmful pathogens. The waste is heated by the sun to temperatures of around 60o C for three hours. Further improvements in technology would help mean that the lowest possible temperature and time can be used to sanitize waste. Upon cooling, hard and solid briquettes are formed as a result of the high fiber content present in feces.

7. Source of Metals

Human feces can be a good source of gold, vanadium, silver, and copper which carry numerous advantages. Gold present in human waste is significant to the extent if it was found in rock during exploration, it could be worth mining. It is currently estimated that 13 million dollars worth of metals can be extracted from one million Americans.

To recover the metals from the human waste, leachates could be used. Leachates are however responsible for damaging of ecosystems when they leak into the environment. Careful use of leachates in a controlled setting therefore proves vital. In our bodies, the metals play an important role in maintaining our joints and transmitting electrical signals.

The extraction of metals from fecal waste prevents the release of toxic substances therefore, protecting the environment. As an example, Japan has recorded a higher gold yield compared to Hishikari gold mine through sewage mining carried out in a sewage treatment facility.

8. Janicki Omni Processor

The Janicki Omni Processor combines solid fuel combustion, steam power generation, and water treatment in the recycling of human waste to produce energy and clean drinking water. Therefore, the process can be used to sustain millions in the world who lack access to clean water. The process begins with human waste being fed into a dryer to remove moisture thereby reducing it to dry fly ash.

Heat generated in this process is used to heat water in boiler pipes to form steam, which runs a generator to produce electricity. This electricity is enough to power the whole processor and surplus can be sold. Steam that leaves the dryer goes through a series of filters before condensation and distillation to produce clean water. The Omni Processor doesn’t let out foul smell and meets current emission standards.

9. Cosmic Radiation Shield

Life in mars is expected to pose a great risk to the health of those who will visit it since there is exposure to radiation from cosmic rays. The extent of the effects posed to human beings on exposure to galactic cosmic rays is not clearly known but it is known to increase the risk of cancer.

To protect humans, human waste together with water and food can be put in bags and used as a shield against radiation. This will be lined on the space shuttle used in interplanetary travels. From the earth the bags will initially be filled with drinking water then on reaching Mars, upon depletion of the water, they will be replace by bags with human waste.

10. Source of water

Due to the potential of producing water that is not potable from human waste, electrolysis of this water can be used to produce oxygen and hydrogen. This method of producing oxygen is used as a backup oxygen system for astronauts on long missions. Arguably, this method of extracting non-drinkable water can be utilized further to come up with water that is safe to drink by treating it.

Human waste in production of renewable energy is a milestone. Moreover, it serves as a major contribution to the environment. Through recycling of poop that would have ended up in a landfill and polluted the environment, benefits such as biogas, fertilizer, fecal transplant, hydrogen fuel, building bricks, metals and drinking water can be obtained. Therefore, human waste proves to be cheap and an environmentally-friendly alternative. No matter how unpleasant human waste is thought to be, it has great potential in changing the world.

Image credit: pexels


Rinkesh is passionate about clean and green energy. He is running this site since 2009 and writes on various environmental and renewable energy related topics. He lives a green lifestyle and is often looking for ways to improve the environment around him.

Latest posts by Rinkesh (see all)

11 Greenest Countries on Earth in 2017

The world is making advancements towards becoming green especially for environmentally conscious nations as they work hard to develop their economies. Industries have been set up, people have ventured into real estate, and governments are constantly making great milestones in the health, education, energy and transportation sectors. These developments have allowed countries to provide a better economy and life to its citizens.

However, this does not come without consequences to the environment. Global warming and environmental degradation is one of the impacts faced. The environment is thus at a risk, particularly with the increase in the number of production industries, expansion of modern transport and residential developments. Despite these environmental risks that come with development, there are countries that have worked hard to reduce them and keep their environment green. Here are 11 countries that have been termed as the greenest in 2017:


1. Iceland

Iceland is one of the countries that takes its environment very seriously and invests in its sustainability. It has been graded as one of the greenest countries in world. Besides, it has been in the fore front in the implementation of programs that are eco-friendly. It boasts of an Environmental Performance index of 93.5.

It has placed focus on production of electricity and heat by utilizing geothermal landscapes. Iceland has also played a major role in the fight against ocean pollution. It has made sure that the waters are kept clean and fishing is done while prioritizing on protecting the environment.

2. Switzerland

Switzerland is the second most greenest country in the world in 2017 with an Environmental Protection index of 89.1. It has put into place various measures to ensure that the environment is kept clean and at the same time sustainable. The setting up of Alpine park is one of the steps it took. Additionally, the country has focused on production of resources by using renewable energy, a move that promotes a green economy.

Switzerland has over the years made laws that have allowed farmlands to develop and prevent them from being used for infrastructural expansion. These contributions by the country has allowed it to be green as the natural environment has been kept safe. Clean air, beautiful lakes and mountains have been notable features that make it prominent.

3. Costa Rica

Costa Rica is popularly known for its amazing scenery and equally intriguing landscape. The green in its environment is clearly evident at first glance. It boasts an Environmental Protection Index of 86.4. The country has put stern measures to avoid both air and water pollution and hoping to achieve a carbon neutral environment by the year 2021.

The citizens of the country use renewable energy in order to avoid the production of greenhouse gases. Costa Rica hopes to be the first carbon neutral country in the world and is constantly seeking for funding to make this possible. Other than being one of the greenest countries in the world, Costa Rica is also considered to be one with the happiest people in it.

4. Sweden

Sweden is listed among the greenest countries in the world with an Environmental Protection Index of 86.0. The country plans on eradicating the use of fossil fuel by the year 2020. The move is meant to prevent environmental pollution. What’s more, they have embraced the use of renewable energy that is eco-friendly to keep the environment natural and safe from pollution.

The use of renewable energy greatly contributes to the reduction of carbon in the air thus a cleaner and safer environment. The most notable action is the partnership between Sweden and its neighboring countries, especially by taking responsibility to protect the Baltic Sea and protect the ecosystem. The environmental governance body in Sweden is amongst the most sound and this has contributed to the fact that Sweden has been kept green.

5. Norway

Norway is one of the counties in Europe that has a significantly green environment. It has an Environmental Protection Index of 81.1. The country has made sure that its residential and commercial facilities do not release any greenhouse gases to the environment. Like other countries, Norway has made sure that the whole country uses eco-friendly and renewable sources of energy so as to reduce the rate of pollution and carbon production.

Norway has put in place sustainable development strategies and environmental laws that are supposed to aid in realization of a carbon neutral country by the year 2030. Most interestingly, Norway cultivates a relationship with nature. Children from a tender age are taught on how to live together with nature and protect the environment. In addition, Norway uses ecological knowledge to keep its environment clean and safe.

6. Mauritius

Mauritius, a small island country in Africa, has played a major role in keeping its environment green. It has an Environmental Performance Index of 80.6. Mauritius being an island, has worked tirelessly to protect its ports. It has set up laws and protection acts that reduce the rate of pollution whilst promoting environmental protection.


7. France

The contribution of Nicholas Sarkozy played a major role in making France one of the greenest countries in the world. He implemented legislations that made it mandatory for all of France to partake in making the country eco-friendly and to conserve energy. France has an Environmental Protection Index of 78.2. France has been endowed with very fertile grounds and is one of the top exporters of food. It is also makes wine thanks to the grape fields it has.

The country has less industries as compared to other countries and this has helped in the reduction of air pollution. Over the years, France has been working on deindustrialization – a move that has seen the environmental state of the country improve as water pollution has been reduced significantly. Additionally, France has vowed to change its resource usage and methods of production to conserve the environment.

8. Austria

Austria has an Environmental performance Index of 78.1. It achieves this Index by relentlessly striving to maintain the natural conditions of its environment. Among the major actions taken by Austria is putting environmental protection in its social and economic policy agenda.

Austria has also worked hard in sectors such as waste management and chemical as well as air pollution to prevent such pollutants from destroying the environment. Further, Austria has incorporated ecological knowledge in their agriculture to prevent pollution. This has been highlighted by the restriction on the use of pesticides. It has also put measures into place to protect its forest and reduce deforestation. All these have contributed to making it one of the greenest countries in the world.

9. Cuba

Cuba is not left behind among the countries ranked as the greenest in the world. This is evidenced considering its Environmental Protection Index of 78.1. Cuba has worked hard in keeping its environment green and safe by reducing the use of Pesticides on farmland since they are chemicals that negatively impact the environment.

The sea level has also been lowered to protect the soil from excessive salt that might destroy it. Environmental awareness is also taught in schools so that children can embrace it and practice it to sustain the environment.

10. Colombia

Colombia is a beautiful country that has been blessed with amazing sceneries and vegetation. Particularly, Colombia is endowed with the amazon forest, tropical rainforests and deserts. It also has thousands of species living in its ecosystem. Policies and regulations have equally been set up to protect the environment and preserve its biodiversity.

Despite the fact that they were initially accused of degrading their natural environment, they have worked tirelessly to regain the lost glory by making laws that favor the sustainability of the environment. It has an Environmental Performance Index of 76.8 and is ranked among the greenest countries in the world.

11. Finland

Finland finishes the top 11 list among the greenest countries in the world for the year 2017. In the 80’s, Finland was known for high scores of nitrogen emission and other activities that destroyed the environment. However, over the years, improvements have been noted as the country strives to restore its environment to its original state.

The body in charge of the environment in Finland has worked hard to make sure greenhouse gases are not produced and that the citizens in the country use renewable sources of energy for production. Wind power has greatly been made use of. According to Yale University’s annual Environmental Performance Index, Finland has planned to have more than half of its electricity coming from renewable sources of energy.

Image credit: pixabay


Rinkesh is passionate about clean and green energy. He is running this site since 2009 and writes on various environmental and renewable energy related topics. He lives a green lifestyle and is often looking for ways to improve the environment around him.

Latest posts by Rinkesh (see all)