Category Archives: ozone layer

Effects and Solutions to Reduce Impact of Air Travel on the Environment

Flying is indeed bad for the planet because it contributes to global warming, pollution, and leaves a huge carbon footprint. Airplanes run on kerosene fuel, which when combusted, releases large amount of carbon dioxide and other gases into the atmosphere. Even though aviation is not a large industry, it has large impact on the climate system.

The aviation industry is one of the fastest-growing sources of carbon gases in the atmosphere. Airplanes are important to the economy in various ways such as imports, exports, tourism and business. But the importance of the industry comes with adverse effects, which continue to affect the climate with little or nothing to do because of how the industry is tremendously growing and there being no alternative to kerosene as fuel.


What’s more, the amount of carbon footprint left on the planet by a single flight is a huge contributor of global warming. And to make matters even worse, the increased use of airplanes in travel due to its efficiency and the fact that it helps travelers save time does not make it any better. The high rate of combustion of the fuel increases the amount of carbon emission, which directly affects the erosion of the ozone layer and therefore leading to global warming.

Effects of Air Travel on the Environment

1. Emission of Greenhouse Gases

Aircraft engines combust fuel to emit carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and soot. Nitrogen oxides emitted by aircrafts contributes to global warming and is a pollutant in the lower atmosphere whereas it destroys the stratospheric ozone layer in the high altitudes. The impact of carbons released by airplanes is no small issue considering that the emissions are realized at a higher altitude and faster.

Emissions at higher altitudes pose a greater danger because they trigger a series of chemical reactions and atmospheric effects cover wider areas. It is even recorded that travelling by air has a greater environmental impact per kilometer as compared to other forms of transport such as driving. Even as other industries receive significant improvements on emission levels; that of aviation industry stagnates.

2. Noise Pollution

Noise as a result of the aviation industry can be regarded as debatable. This is because noise produced by aero planes is short-lived. However, to those residing or those near airports are affected hugely by the noise.

Some of the adverse effects that these people face include sleeping disturbances, performance effects, and interference with communication along with cardiovascular and psycho-psychological effects. Noise of an aircraft is the responsibility of the airport operator and he or she should then ensure proper mechanisms to set, monitor and ensure noise insulation schemes are in operation.

3. Contrails Leading to Global Warming

Contrails, water vapor, released by air planes forming condensation trails, trap heat that would otherwise be released from the earth. This brings about global warming. According to studies, night flights cause global warming more compared to day flights because contrails help in reflecting sunlight during the day.

The contrails in the sky condense at higher altitudes and can spread up to two kilometers from where they have been realized. They tend to trap heat that would otherwise be dispensed from the earth, greatly contributing to global warming.

Solutions to Reduce Impact of Air Travel on the Environment

1. Setting up of Regulations

As a solution to environmental degradation as a result of air travel, regulation of the industry is needed. International Civil Authority (ICAO) in 2016 proposed the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) which gives airlines restriction on carbon emissions. If the limit is exceeded, then airlines will buy offsets from other sectors.

This however did not perform as expected proving to the complexity of regulating airlines therefore leaving the responsibility of regulating amount of carbon emissions to Kyoto Protocol whose responsibility is limited to domestic flights. The issue of regulating the aviation industry should therefore be treated as other transport policy and its consistency maintained so as to protect the climate. In order for regulations and policies to take place, international cooperation should be enhanced to achieve its efficiency.


2. Use of Technology

To deal with the problem of climate impact by the aviation industry, technology can be used in design and systems of planes to make them more efficient. A breakthrough in use of another type of fuel that is greener, like biofuels, hydrogen, solar panels and batteries, could save the world from the degradation of the environment by aircraft engines running on kerosene.

However, the rate at which this progress is made cannot be compared to the rate at which number of passengers are buying tickets. Also, the fact that aircraft have to carry their own fuel is one that should be dealt with and have such engineering problems looked into and a solution is reached.

3. Carbon Offsetting Programs

Charging the amount of greenhouses emitted into the air by aircraft could go a long way in discouraging pollution. These charges should be made payable by airlines for every ton of greenhouses emitted. Like other transport operators, it obliges airlines to pay for the pollution they cause thereby limiting them to lower amounts of emission because it comes at a price.

In addition to emission costs, the government can also add environmental and social costs. Most airplanes have embraced this and have been coming up with projects that help offset their carbon footprints. There is a mechanism that helps in the calculation of the amount of carbon footprint created by a flight and the money generated in offsetting allows the airplane companies to start projects that protect the environment.

4. Using Alternative Means

One of the most effective ways to reduce amount of carbon footprint is by flying less often. This means in the case where other forms transport are available, it is not a must for an individual to fly. Instead, driving or taking the train to the destination as preference for majority of the people would mean airlines burn less fuel. Taking holidays that are not so far away could also help in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

5. Use of Computer Programs to Reduce Noise Pollution

As a means of preventing noise pollution by airports to its neighborhoods, computer programs can be used to simulate aircraft operations to identify areas that are prone to such disturbances. Virtually predicting the extent of noise levels using the International Noise Model can be used to address the issue. The model is widely used to come up with aircraft noise footprints for a certain number of aircrafts at average weather conditions.

6. Optimization of Flight Routes

In a bid to protect the climate, optimizing flight routes can reduce negative effects of flying. Having a flight plan that avoids weather conditions, which results in the creation of clouds is among the best strategies. By limiting the formation of clouds, it aids in release of earth’s radiation into space resulting in a cooling effect. With proper formulation of routes, climate protection by aircrafts can be achieved. Plus, airlines with routes that pollute less can be charged less money for pollution certificates.

7. Invention of Alternative Energy Sources

Aircraft engines unlike other engines have no other greener alternative such as the use of solar or other renewable energy. Technological advancement in the sector might lead to electric planes that emit less and are more fuel-efficient. However, the sector remains negligent to matters of the environment.

For instance, most airline websites mention little about environmental protection or have completely nothing to do with the environment. Also, NGOs that deal with the environment are reluctant on the matter. Such negligence can be attributed to huge concentration on profits earned by airlines that has seen the industry continue to grow irrespective of how bad flying is for the planet.

Image credit: pexels , pixabay


Rinkesh is passionate about clean and green energy. He is running this site since 2009 and writes on various environmental and renewable energy related topics. He lives a green lifestyle and is often looking for ways to improve the environment around him.

Latest posts by Rinkesh (see all)

18 Innovative and Eco-friendly Business Ideas For 2018

18 Innovative and Eco-friendly Business Ideas For 2018

The world is faced with a dire climatic change due to the destruction of the ozone layer as a result of the emission caused by harmful gases into the atmosphere. In order to have a sustainable life in the current world, people should adopt lifestyles that will ensure the promotion of healthy living and dissuade pollution. The key to attaining this goal is crafting and investing in eco-friendly business ideas. Plus, there should be a myriad of projects and initiatives to ensure eco-friendly investment opportunities as well as living is encouraged.

Accordingly, all the stakeholders and pioneers in various business sectors need to step up including the entire business community. Particularly, the sectors needs to see to it that the initiative of going green is reached by all means necessary. As much as installing eco-friendly measures are ideal, the whole business sector must invest in going green.


In this article, 18 innovative and eco-friendly business ideas for 2018 are outline, which can go a long way in ensuring the world is on the right track towards achieving green living goals.

1. Start Air Duct cleaning

Dust and dirt in the air can clog the air ducts that are installed in homes or offices. This lower the efficiency of the air conditioner and results in the use of a lot of energy to drive the gadget. The business idea would require regular cleaning of the air ducts to ensure less energy consumption. Also, with proper marketing, both private homes and offices would be willing to hire an expert for the service because it ultimately helps to saves on energy bills.

2. Sale of Energy Saving Bulbs

This idea is very lucrative in 2018 since majority of the households enjoy electricity in their homes. A lot of consumption of electricity subsequently leads to an increase in the electric bills. To avoid this, individuals seek energy saving electric bulbs that use electricity but reduce the energy they use and still provide electricity thus saving on bills.

Besides, this is a business that can thrive in almost any part of the world since even without electricity; one can use the bulbs to conserve energy in homes that use solar panels to harness energy.

3. Start publishing Environmental related magazines and journals

An entrepreneur who has an interest in making money and still promote the environment can venture into the business of publishing environmental magazines and journals. There is a lot of information out there that has not reached the global world. It therefore means that the level of misinformation and ignorance about the environment creates the need to invest in this venture.

The materials can be useful in enlightening individuals and other entities on the importance of conserving the environment and the various ways to go about the same. With the right clients and targeted audience, the sale of such material would fetch a good income.

4. Start Cardboard Recycling Business

This is a move that ensures there is optimal use of the cardboard by recycling those that would go to the landfill or already in the landfills. Plus, there is a lot of waste cardboards lying around, which pollutes the environment. Thus, the business of recycling means less waste in the land and creates an opportunity for people to make a living from the process. Cardboard can be recycled for reuse and can be used in the manufacture of cardboard related materials such as books.

5. Offer Environmental Consultancy

This business idea requires the entrepreneur to be well versed academically in the field of environmental studies. There are a lot of individuals and organizations that are willing to seek the services of a consultant to learn the various ways to improve the environment and how to maintain it. The entrepreneur can seek a fee per every consultation done while at the same time aiding in promoting the health of the environment as well as make decent money.

6. Sale of Used Books

A willing entrepreneur in this area does not need a high startup for capital. Instead, they should seek to find people with books they do not need and then find the market for people who need them. The constant disposal of books is bad for the environment not only because it pollutes the land but also because there is a lot of energy used to produce, design, and publish the books. The entrepreneur can also get innovative and use the internet to market the books.

7. Sale of Organic Products

Currently, there is a dire need to use products that are inorganic to preserve the environment. This translates to a high demand for the organic products. It thus qualifies as a good business idea with products ranging from hair products, food products to cleaning products.

8. Sale of Recycle Bins

There are a lot of items in homes that need to be disposed. Some of these stuffs can be recycled again, for instance, plastics and paper bags. Consequently, there is a need to have recycle bins in homes, office buildings, and public spaces such as bus stops and train stations to ease waste collection. The entrepreneur must be knowledgeable of the area to realize where some of these items will be taken for recycling to boost his/her profits.

9. Sale of Recycle Plastic Bottles

This is one of the most thriving businesses that an entrepreneur can start that will conserve the environment. For starters, there are very many plastic bottles in the landfill that were used to carry water, coffee, juices or even chemicals such as pesticides and insecticides. Further, there are a lot of products that can be made from plastics which will last longer like plastic chairs. Nevertheless, the success of this idea will depend on how the demand of the plastics is and how profitable it is per area.


10. Start Ink-Refill Business

Blue-chip companies as well as offices do a lot of paperwork, which in the end means a lot of printing is needed. The business would ensure regular filling of the ink cartridges of the various offices thus discouraging the purchase of cartridges, which are disposed of once ink has been bought.

11. Open a Recycling Plant

There are entrepreneurs who have solely ventured into the transportation of recycle materials to the recycle plant. Nonetheless, an entrepreneur can also seek to start a recycling plant which is more profitable. The plant will not only aid reduction of landfill in the environment but will also see to the evolution of new materials, which can be sold.

12. Open a Movie Download Shop

With the current modernization in the world, the majority of people are willing to download movies and music rather than buy CD’s, which are disposed after use. In addition, a lot of energy is consumed in the making of these casings and storage devices. The business would prove fruitful to the entrepreneur since with good bandwidth speeds, it is very easy to download movies and sell to people.

13. Open a Biogas Plant

Biofuels are friendly to the environment since they do not entail the emission of a lot of poisonous gases in the air. However, a proper feasibility study should be conducted by the entrepreneur before venturing in this business. Some of the essentials are waste materials for recycle and the market for the biofuel. The entrepreneur can charge both for the collection of the wastes and for the energy produced.

14. Open an Energy Auditing Firm

People are willing to save on the energy they use in their house. As such, setting up of a firm that confirms the amount of energy used in a household is a lucrative deal and people would be willing to part with a small fee rather than incur high energy costs.

15. Start Retailing and Installation of Solar Panels

Electric bills are an issue that most people face at the end of every month. The more the use, the more the bills. As a result, most people prefer solar energy since it is natural and does not involve any energy emissions in its conversion. It is also cheap to buy the solar panels. An entrepreneur can exploit this and deal in solar panels and also offer installation services at a fee.

16. Start a Paper Recycling Business

There is a lot of paper littering polluting the environment. A paper recycling venture will therefore entail the collection of waste paper in the environment and selling it or converting it into useful materials. This is one of the most encouraged recycle businesses because it saves on trees. Trees are the major balancing components of the ecosystem and as such, any move to discourage deforestation is highly encouraged and measures up as an innovative and eco-friendly business idea for 2018.

17. Develop Green Apps

Investing in green app development is an innovative and eco-friendly business idea as it can be used to quantify the amount of energy used and the subsequent carbon emission. Moreover, it can be built in such a way that it provides advice on how best to conserve energy in a household or which gadget is most preferable since it consumes less energy. These applications can be fitted in a phone and the energy consumption tracked. The online sale of these green apps would be worthwhile.

18. Start Car Sharing Services

This is a business that entails linking people who stay in the same locality and work in the same area by connecting them with a car or cars that will carry them from home in the morning and back in the evening instead of each driving individually to and from work. This is a business that will see the reduction of carbon emissions and also save on energy.

Image credit: pixabay

The post 18 Innovative and Eco-friendly Business Ideas For 2018 appeared first on Conserve Energy Future.

Top 10 Ways to Put Human Waste to Use in an Environmentally-Friendly Way

Recycling of human waste, which refers to feces and urine, has many benefits. According to research, on average a human produces fifty liters of feces and five hundred liters of urine. Instead of disposing this in the landfills or treating it and releasing it in the environment, human waste can be exploited in several ways.

And as much as dealing with human waste may exposes one to diseases and unpleasant smell, efforts can be made to ensure the process is human-friendly. Besides, it cannot be as bad as some of the harmful chemical products produced by leading chemical producing companies. In other words, the process of handling the human waste can be made human-friendly and used for the betterment of the environment as outlined in this article.


1. Biogas

Methane gas which is produced by human waste can be tapped and used to produce biogas. Biogas could be used to generate electricity, cook food, and heat water for domestic or industrial use. This is through a process that involves collection of methane in an enclosed container free from oxygen. High temperatures are favorable in the decomposition of organic matter. Biogas, when burnt in the presence of oxygen, it reacts to produce energy.

Use of biogas as a renewable source is of great advantage in numerous ways as it does not pollute the environment and reduces deforestation aimed at producing energy. Biogas contributes to environmental protection by capturing methane that would have been released into the air. If methane would be released into the atmosphere, it would lead to damage if the ozone layer.

2. Fertilizer

Human waste can be utilized as a fertilizer to increase the production of food. The waste is however recommended to be treated at least once before its application on the farm. Treatment is applied to the collection of feces, urine and water from households that is digested by bacteria to reduce the number of pathogens and make the sludge less biologically active hence stinks less.

The use of sludge in agriculture threatens residents around the farm with odor and might pose health problems for those working on the farm. Urine can irrigate fields in the case where water is scarce. Where urine is involved in irrigation, there has to be keen consideration on hygiene. Even though urine poses a danger to human health, it contains nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus that are essential minerals to plants. Access to urine for irrigation is cheap bearing in mind its usefulness.

3. Fecal Transplant

Clostridium difficile is an infection of the gut characterized by inflammation, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Overabundance of bad bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract is the cause of this infection. A remedy to these bacteria is the use of feces from a healthy person and delivering it to the gut of the patient. Delivery of feces can be done in several ways such as using a tube through the patient’s anus and rectum or shooting of frozen fecal matter through one’s nose.

Fecal transplant is preferred because invasive surgery involves chopping, removing, or diverting of organs to get rid of bad bacteria. Moreover, fecal transplant is quick, inexpensive, and more effective than antibiotic administration. Of importance is that through this procedure there is reduced antibiotic resistance which is the ability of microbes to resist medication that previously treated them. However useful the procedure is, careful selection of the donor is important to avoid passing of bacterial and parasitic infections.

4. Hydrogen Fuel

Hydrogen fuel can be deduced from human waste through the same process as the one of passing current through water. It proves to be more efficient with less energy required in the process. Water is distilled from human waste solids then the waste is left in air-sealed tanks for microbial action to take place. This results in the formation of methane and carbon dioxide.

Methane formed in this process is cheaper as compared to relying on natural gas. Methane and carbon go through a tri-generation process that produces hydrogen fuel, heat, and electricity. With the abundance of human waste, consistent supply of hydrogen fuel can be achieved. Hydrogen fuel can be utilized in running of rockets and production of electricity by combining hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

5. Brick-making

Who knew that human waste could be used in the making of bricks? Incinerated sewage sludge ash is combined with vegetable oil in the making of bricks. These bricks are carbon-negative as oil used is derived from plants, which have sucked carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Also, in utilization of such bricks in construction, one protects the environment considering that traditional bricks are made using processes that emit carbon dioxide. Human waste that traditionally would be sent to a landfill is utilized to build structures of many kinds without a scent and it is pocket-friendly.

The bricks are lighter and stronger which means wide usage of such bricks would revolutionize the construction industry not mentioning improvements could be made to them to make them better over time. Making of these bricks could serve as a source of revenue for many.

6. Fuel

In developing countries, the majority of the households cook using biomass. Charcoal being the major source of energy, leads to the degradation of forests. A great solution is the use of human poop heated in the sun as fuel. This alternative fuel burns for two times longer compared to charcoal and releases lesser carbon monoxide. Packaged as briquettes, one ton of these briquettes saves around 88 trees and proves to be a cheaper source of energy.

The process of making this fuel begins with treatment of fecal waste by heating it in a waiting container so as to remove any harmful pathogens. The waste is heated by the sun to temperatures of around 60o C for three hours. Further improvements in technology would help mean that the lowest possible temperature and time can be used to sanitize waste. Upon cooling, hard and solid briquettes are formed as a result of the high fiber content present in feces.

7. Source of Metals

Human feces can be a good source of gold, vanadium, silver, and copper which carry numerous advantages. Gold present in human waste is significant to the extent if it was found in rock during exploration, it could be worth mining. It is currently estimated that 13 million dollars worth of metals can be extracted from one million Americans.

To recover the metals from the human waste, leachates could be used. Leachates are however responsible for damaging of ecosystems when they leak into the environment. Careful use of leachates in a controlled setting therefore proves vital. In our bodies, the metals play an important role in maintaining our joints and transmitting electrical signals.

The extraction of metals from fecal waste prevents the release of toxic substances therefore, protecting the environment. As an example, Japan has recorded a higher gold yield compared to Hishikari gold mine through sewage mining carried out in a sewage treatment facility.

8. Janicki Omni Processor

The Janicki Omni Processor combines solid fuel combustion, steam power generation, and water treatment in the recycling of human waste to produce energy and clean drinking water. Therefore, the process can be used to sustain millions in the world who lack access to clean water. The process begins with human waste being fed into a dryer to remove moisture thereby reducing it to dry fly ash.

Heat generated in this process is used to heat water in boiler pipes to form steam, which runs a generator to produce electricity. This electricity is enough to power the whole processor and surplus can be sold. Steam that leaves the dryer goes through a series of filters before condensation and distillation to produce clean water. The Omni Processor doesn’t let out foul smell and meets current emission standards.

9. Cosmic Radiation Shield

Life in mars is expected to pose a great risk to the health of those who will visit it since there is exposure to radiation from cosmic rays. The extent of the effects posed to human beings on exposure to galactic cosmic rays is not clearly known but it is known to increase the risk of cancer.

To protect humans, human waste together with water and food can be put in bags and used as a shield against radiation. This will be lined on the space shuttle used in interplanetary travels. From the earth the bags will initially be filled with drinking water then on reaching Mars, upon depletion of the water, they will be replace by bags with human waste.

10. Source of water

Due to the potential of producing water that is not potable from human waste, electrolysis of this water can be used to produce oxygen and hydrogen. This method of producing oxygen is used as a backup oxygen system for astronauts on long missions. Arguably, this method of extracting non-drinkable water can be utilized further to come up with water that is safe to drink by treating it.

Human waste in production of renewable energy is a milestone. Moreover, it serves as a major contribution to the environment. Through recycling of poop that would have ended up in a landfill and polluted the environment, benefits such as biogas, fertilizer, fecal transplant, hydrogen fuel, building bricks, metals and drinking water can be obtained. Therefore, human waste proves to be cheap and an environmentally-friendly alternative. No matter how unpleasant human waste is thought to be, it has great potential in changing the world.

Image credit: pexels


Rinkesh is passionate about clean and green energy. He is running this site since 2009 and writes on various environmental and renewable energy related topics. He lives a green lifestyle and is often looking for ways to improve the environment around him.

Latest posts by Rinkesh (see all)